Neuropsychiatric predictors of cognitive functioning over a one-year follow-up period in HIV.

TitleNeuropsychiatric predictors of cognitive functioning over a one-year follow-up period in HIV.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsSundermann, EE, Tang, B, Kim, M, Paolillo, EW, Heaton, RK, Moore, RC
JournalJ Affect Disord
Date Published2023 Sep 01
KeywordsAnxiety, Cognition, Depression, Follow-Up Studies, HIV Infections, Humans

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent among persons with HIV (PWH). We examined the effect of the most common NPS, depression and anxiety, on cognitive change among PWH and compared these associations to those among persons without HIV (PWoH).METHODS: Participants included 168 PWH and 91 PWoH who completed baseline self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and anxiety (Profile of Mood States [POMS] - Tension-anxiety subscale) and completed a comprehensive neurocognitive evaluation at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Demographically-corrected scores from 15 neurocognitive tests were used to calculate global and domain-specific T-scores. Linear mixed-effects models examined the effect of depression and anxiety and their interaction with HIV-serostatus and time on global T-scores.RESULTS: There were significant depression-by-HIV and anxiety-by-HIV interactions on global T-scores such that, among PWH only, greater depressive and anxiety symptoms at baseline related to worse global T-scores across visits. Non-significant interactions with time suggest stability in these relationships across visits. Follow-up analyses examining cognitive domains revealed that both the depression-by-HIV and the anxiety-by-HIV interactions were driven by learning and recall.LIMITATIONS: Follow-up was limited to one-year and there were fewer PWoH than PWH, creating a differential in statistical power.CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that anxiety and depression have stronger links to worse cognitive functioning in PWH than PWoH, particularly learning and memory, and that these associations seem to persist for at least one-year.

Alternate JournalJ Affect Disord
PubMed ID37211052
Grant ListHHSN271201000036C / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
N01MH22005 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
P30 MH062512 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
U24 MH100928 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
HHSN271201000030C / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG062387 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States